The U.S. military conducted a series of tests from 1963 to 1969 known as Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense, or SHAD. The goal of these tests was to determine the vulnerability of U.S. warships to attack with chemical and biological weapons. To do this, several ships were sprayed with various agents while thousands of military personnel were aboard. The personnel were not told about the tests, nor were they given any protective clothing. Chemicals tested on the unsuspecting servicemen included the nerve gases VX and Sarin, toxic chemicals such as zinc cadmium sulfide and sulfur dioxide, and a variety of biological agents like anthrax and botulism toxin.
The SHAD experiments, originally sanctioned by the Kennedy administration and the Joint Chiefs under the rules of the National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM 235), were carried out in many locations such as; the Panama Canal, Canada, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and even inside the United States.
The National Security Action Memorandum authorized the use of human subjects for chemical and biological warfare testing.
Shad was part of a larger program of tests called Project 112. From 1962 until 1973, the U.S. military sprayed thousands of servicemen with chemical and biological agents without their knowledge or consent. These tests took place in populated areas, on ships at sea, and even in the skies above America. The purpose of these tests was to assess the vulnerability of the United States to a chemical or biological attack.
Project 112 was overseen by the Deseret Test Center, a top-secret chemical and biological warfare testing facility at Fort Douglas Utah. The tests continued until they were exposed by the press. In 1977, Congress passed the Presidential Review Memorandum, which banned all offensive chemical and biological weapons testing.
Despite the ban, it was later revealed that the U.S. military had continued to test chemical and biological agents on human subjects into the 1990s, to include spraying live bacteria over San Francisco as part of a test to study wind patterns during a possible biological attack.
As expected, the military vehemently denied any culpability until an CBS investigative report in 2000 finally forced them to admit that, yes, indeed, they had been spraying American citizens with deadly toxins for decades.
In the wake of these revelations, the Department of Defense set up a program to compensate servicemen who had been exposed to chemical or biological agents during Project Shipboard. However, only a small fraction of those exposed have actually received any compensation.
The SHAD experiments among others were a violation of the Nuremberg Code, which states that human experimentation can only be conducted with the informed consent of the subjects. The code also stipulates that experimenters must take steps to protect the subjects from harm. The U.S. military violated both of these provisions when they conducted the SHAD experiments.
The Nuremberg Code is a set of ethical principles governing human experimentation. The code was developed in response to the horrific medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors during World War II. The code states that human experimentation can only be conducted with the informed consent of the subjects. Informed consent means that the subjects must be fully informed about the risks and benefits of the experiment before they agree to participate. The code also stipulates that experimenters must take steps to protect subjects from harm.
If you or a loved one were exposed to chemical or biological agents during Project SHAD or any other military experiment, you may be eligible for compensation. The first step is to file a claim with the Department of Veterans Affairs. You can also contact a lawyer who specializes in VA benefits claims. An experienced attorney can help you navigate the complex claims process and get the compensation you deserve.
Thank you for reading Project SHAD: U.S. Military Personnel Were Sprayed with Nerve Gas and Other Toxins Without Their Knowledge. Be sure to check out our other blog posts such as – The Role of Dr. Fauci in the Creation of HIV/AIDS
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